Kaibigan ng Kaunlaran at Kalikasan (KKK)

Kaibigan ng Kaunlaran at Kalikasan (KKK)

Friends of Progress and the Environment

Smog With PM 2.5.component

Particle pollution is a mixture of microscopic solid and liquid droplets suspended in air. This pollutive substance, also known as particulate matter, is made up of a number of components, including acids (such as nitrates and sulfates), organic chemicals, metals, soil or dust particles, and allergens (such as fragments of pollen or mold spores).


PM2.5 is the particulate matter that is 2.5 micrometers in diameter and smaller or 1/30th the diameter of a human hair.


Fine particle pollution can be emitted directly or formed secondarily in the atmosphere. Examples include sulfates which are a type of secondary particle formed from sulfur dioxide emissions from power plants and industrial facilities. Nitrates, another type of fine particle, are formed from emissions of nitrogen oxides from power plants, automobiles, and other combustion sources.

The chemical composition of particles depends on location, time of year, and weather. Health studies have shown a significant association between exposure to fine particles and premature death from heart or lung disease. Fine particles can aggravate heart and lung diseases and have been linked to effects such as: cardiovascular symptoms; cardiac arrhythmias; heart attacks; respiratory symptoms; asthma attacks; and bronchitis. (Reference:USEPA)

Continuing dialogues among the industry sectors and the Environmental Management Bureau are taking place on the implementation aspect of this Order.

The DENR Administrative Order follows:

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